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yeast and baking powder experiment

Por Chico Barbosa

Yeast prefer warm conditions which is why warm water is recommended. There are hundreds of ways to make dessert breads and cakes. If you’re a fan of tough, crunchy crusts, here are some tips: A) Cut 1/2-inch deep slits into the top of your dough before baking. During this quarantine, I’ve had a lot of time to do things that I didn’t have time for before, so one of the things I took up was bread making. After 24 hours, remove half of your dough, and mix in 7 scant tablespoons of flour and 4 tablespoons of water. However, since this process happens instantaneously, the small carbon dioxide bubbles will deflate if left out, which is why in baking you typically add the liquids to the dry ingredients last to prevent the carbon dioxide from escaping. Observation Time: Try pulling up the sticks to test the dough consistency. Yeast & Baking Lessons We want you to be successful in baking! In this experiment, the gas fills up the gloves. To design your own bread experiments, use the “Scientific Method": Once you’ve started your experiment, collect and analyze your data: Before you begin, plan your experiment! Before you start, here's the skinny on saccharomyces: Yeast,a single-celled fungus that belongs to the same kingdom as mushrooms,is one of the most common microbes in the world. They may be used for the same purpose but they are different from each other. Pour the water over the dry ingredients up to the 350ml mark for each container (2/3 cup of water). So, this process starts in the outermost layer of the bread: the crust. ( Log Out /  I decided to make a sourdough starter during this quarantine because sourdough bread has always been my favorite, and we weren’t going to the store often. You can substitute baking powder for yeast but the taste and texture will not be the same. In a container, mix 250 ml (1 cup + 1 tablespoon) of high-gluten flour with 150ml (1/2 cup + 2 tablespoons) of tap water. All over the world, grains, like wheat, barley, rice, and maize started cropping up, due to humans’ careful selection of nature’s biggest and best grains. Did you notice any difference? Overall this experiment did not disappoint. Yummm! While the yeast feeds on the sugars in the flour creating carbon dioxide and ethanol alcohol, the lactobacilli also feeds on the sugars and converts the sugars to lactic and acetic acid as well. How do your independent variables impact your dependent variables? So, once stabilized and added to the flour and water of bread dough, the starter feeds on the sugars converting them into carbon dioxide, ethanol, and acetic and lactic acid. Our Inspiration. In terms of texture, the bread was airy, with mostly small air bubbles and a few large bubbles, and a soft chewy texture in the bread, a crust also formed on the outside which was crunchy and slightly chewy. Once the bread has baked, this is what gives the loaf its airy texture. Many new ingredients, like vitamin C and anti-microbial preservatives, are now often added to bread to allow bakers to use less-expensive grains and to lengthen shelf-life. Typically, baking powder consists of cream of tartar as the acid, baking soda as the base, and cornstarch as a filler to separate the particles of acid and base. Determine which “independent” variables you’d like to change and which “dependent” variables you’d like to measure. Add milk, oil, vanilla and baking powder and beat until well mixed. Why might it be stretchy? https://www.rookieparenting.com/the-science-of-bread-baking-kids-experiment Use your starter from step 3.3 with any recipe you please! Baking Soda is alkaline and reacts with acids such as vinegar, releasing carbon dioxide ( a gas ) and water. Can you explain the results you find? Since the bread is also kneaded, as explained this creates stronger and longer gluten chains, trapping the carbon dioxide in the bread, also creating the chewy texture. Baking soda experiments or activities are a great, safe and easy way to introduce the concept of a chemical reaction to children. Put your glove back on the container. You may find a cake recipe or two that calls for yeast such as Potica or Panettone. For microbes, some foods are easier to digest than others. Find out the difference between baking powder vs. yeast and when to use each. If your dough is dry and difficult to mix, add water until all your doughs are the same gooey consistency. Combine the dry ingredients, all-purpose flour, whole-wheat flour, baking powder and salt, in the large bowl and blend with a wooden spoon until thoroughly mixed. One thing I noticed about the sourdough though was that it spread a lot, but I’m pretty sure I didn’t put in enough flour so that’s my bad. Many types of bacteria, such as lactobacillus, produce lactic acid as a waste product when they eat, which makes bread and yogurt sour. Record what percentage of the bread is covered by mold, and see if the mold coverage follows an exponential growth curve. As far as the procedures go though, I really just followed the recipes as written. Now, get ready to bake by turning the oven to 350 F (adult supervision required). The yeast and sugar produce a gas (carbon dioxide). Work out any flour clumps. Knead the dough in your hands until it's a compact ball. Mix the dry ingredients together with a mixing stick (or clean spoon). Yeast takes a few hours to work because it takes time for the yeast organisms to consume the sugars and produce carbon dioxide that is necessary for the bread to rise. To make this process faster, people would add pieces of old dough, mashed grapes, or beer foam, which are all full of yeast. When the yeast feeds on the sugars, it decomposes the sugars into carbon dioxide and ethanol alcohol. A leavener is what the dough needs to begin to rise. However, since the batter wasn’t kneaded like a typical bread, the protein strands of gluten don’t develop as much, so carbon dioxide bubbles don’t get trapped in between the protein strands as much, and will exit the batter more readily. Baking soda is a simple base and therefore needs to be combined with an acid of some sort, such as yogurt, lemon, or vinegar, in order to become activated. Baking powder is activated by a combination of heat and moisture. Most bread recipes that use vinegar call for no more than 1 teaspoon per 1- to 2-pound loaf. I was left with three rather tasty different types of bread, and that’s all due to chemistry of the ingredients going together. (Save the gloves for your yeast! Nutrients that are easily digested are called “bioavailable.” Foods that have a lot of “bioavailable” nutrients, like bread and milk, often mold or sour quickly, which is why many store-bought breads contain preservatives and other chemicals to prevent microbes from growing on them. Baking powder is made of a combination of an acid, a base, and a filler all in powdered form. A fun science project for kids that’s with household, everyday materials. How to Test Baking Powder . However, adding vinegar to yeast dough requires a delicate balance, because too much acid can stop yeast fermentation and hinder browning. To grow these grains, people settled down and began to farm and build thriving communities. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Since both the yeasted and the sourdough breads were kneaded, and the yeasted had additional kneading time, they both got a crunchy chewy crust due to the gluten. Although some of the recipes took time, they don’t require you to have incredible baking skills, so don’t be afraid to try your hand at making bread of your own! If the baking powder is fresh, the mixture should produce lots of bubbles. Level off each spoonful (1/4 teaspoon) of yeast before adding it to your container. Remove the gloves and place each ball of dough into the corresponding tin. To keep the experiment controlled, I decided to use simple similar bread recipes that the only major difference between was the leavening agent. As baked, the carbon dioxide bubbles of different sizes (from the different yeast) expand and the ethanol evaporates creating an irregular structure. Key Difference – Baking Powder vs Yeast There seems to be a lot of confusion over the difference between yeast and baking powder. No yeast goes into container #3. So, when baked, these carbon dioxide bubbles expand and spread apart due to the increased kinetic energy from heat, causing air bubbles to form and stay. Today, we call these "flat breads," and they include breads from all over the world, like pita, tortillas, and naan. Store your fledgling starter (dough) in a warm place. Bake the tins together for 20-30 minutes until the top of each loaf is golden-brown (adult supervision required). Try the same experiment, but this time use about a tablespoon of baking powder instead of yeast, but without the sugar. However, instead of producing CO2, yeast will produce alcohols through a process called fermentation, making yeast a key player in beer and wine production. With DoughLab (or the equivalent components from the store), you can design your own delicious bread experiments and learn about yeast! Both crusts got golden due to the Maillard and caramelization reactions. Keep your mixing sticks in their corresponding containers. If you've got non-chlorinated water, bottled or filtered, use it! According to Webster’s New World Dictionary, the word “leaven” comes from the Latin word “levare,” a word that means “lift up, to make light and rise.” Yeast gets energy from its favorite source of food in the form of sugar. Pour quickly so you've finished pouring before the water starts to seep into the flour. Play with it, and notice that the ball is comprised of tightly-woven clumps of gluten. But in the bottle with yeast, warm water and sugar the balloon inflates over time! Change ). Yeast and baking powder are mainly used for culinary purposes as leavening agents. “Respiration” describes the process of munching up food and releasing waste. Both yeast and baking powder are used to gas-fill the pastry, make it expand and thus make it soft and fluffy. Early bread was made of a grainy paste and was dense and flat, making it a perfect high-energy food that could be carried and stored. In the menu below are links (in blue) to experiments you can do at home. Dough was left out in the open to "rise," as yeast (which naturally live on grains and other foods) would munch up sugars and release gas bubbles into the dough. Through your experiments, you’ve learned different ways to make your bread denser or fluffier. However, the yeasted bread had a slightly yeasty flavor, but a distinct bread taste. 4. Test baking powder by mixing 1 teaspoon of baking powder with 1/3 cup hot water. https://recipes.howstuffworks.com/tools-and-techniques/baking-powder.htm, https://www.lefoodist.com/guides/cooking-classes-paris/cookingparis146.html, https://www.thekitchn.com/the-science-behind-yeast-and-how-it-makes-bread-rise-226483, https://www.discovermagazine.com/planet-earth/the-biology-of-sourdough, https://slate.com/culture/2012/11/why-does-steam-make-bread-light-and-crusty-it-slows-down-the-cooking-process.html. The sourdough, on the other hand, had a distinct sour flavor in the bread, similar to what you’d expect from a sourdough. Long-term care: Store your starter in the fridge, and feed by mixing in 7 scant tablespoons of flour and 4 tablespoons of water once a week. Gently knock the jars down on the table a few times to level the mix. Your ultimate guide to baking with yeast! This drives down pH (to more acidic) and gives the sour taste to sourdough bread. The chemicals undergo an acid-base reaction to produce carbon dioxide gas. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Wheat flour contains a protein, called gluten, which adds to the stretchiness of dough and the chewiness of bread. The way bread bakes is through all the moisture being drawn out of the loaf. https://bakerbettie.com/basic-quick-bread-recipe-sweet-or-savory/. C) Use a higher oven temperature (and shorter bake time). No yeast goes into container #3. Make sure to talk to an adult (your parents, teacher or an older friend) before you begin any of these experiments, as they will be able to help you get the tools you need to conduct the experiments. In terms of texture though, this bread overall had the largest irregular air bubbles, and a chewy texture in the bread, a crust also formed on the outside of the bread that was crunchy and slightly chewy. I cultivated my starter from a few simple ingredients, water, and flour, and over time it started to grow. This causes dough to become stretchy and gooey. When a liquid is added to a batter containing baking powder, the tartaric acid (cream of tartar) and the sodium bicarbonate(baking soda) dissolve in the liquid and thus have more freedom to move around and react. You’ll need them again later. Populations boomed with these energy-rich, storable foods. ( Log Out /  So, when wet, a neutralization reaction occurs between the acid and base in baking powder, forming water, potassium sodium tartrate (a salt), and carbon dioxide. Add 3 small spoonfuls of yeast (3/4 teaspoon total) to container #1 (the “Control”) and Container #2 (the one with “Added Sugar”). You're ready to bake! This resulted in the airiness of the baking powder bread, but also explains why this bread was more dense and cake -like than the other breads. Add 3 large packets of sugar (1/4 tablespoons total) to container #2, the “Added Sugar” container. As mentioned, gluten is a protein, so when the dough is pulled and kneaded the strands of the protein stretch to become longer and stronger, this accounts for a chewier texture in the yeasted bread. Since I was ultimately going to be making 3 loaves of bread, I decided to quarter the recipes to avoid creating unnecessary waste. This process is aided by the gluten built up in the bread because gluten is a protein, so at higher temperatures it begins to coagulate and turn into a semisolid or solid-state, giving the crust it’s characteristic chew and crunch. Otherwise, continue repeating step 1 until your mixture doubles in 6 hours. I saw video's and posts about how easy it is to brew your own mead. However, since the sourdough was kneaded less, less gluten developed, creating a more crunchy than chewy crust. This process starts immediately. Yeast needs sugar to grow and a warm environment. Using yeast is rather inconvenient - it can be dead already or if the yeast is submerged in too hot water it can die and also waiting for yeast to work to let it gas-fill the pastry before baking … It’s time to explore the science of yeast! We encourage you to experiment with the common additives below to find your own perfect recipe: A) Vegetable Oil, to make the bread/cake moister, B) Eggs, to add to “fluffiness” and moisture and to help bind ingredients. However, since the dough has gluten developed, the carbon dioxide doesn’t merely escape the bread into the surroundings, it gets trapped in between the gluten strands causing the dough to rise. You'll need the following materials, included in Magical Microbes's DoughLab, or available at your local grocery (or pantry! Even so, all of the loaves could be easily recognized as bread, it just depends on what type you like best. About 30,000 years ago, humans began making bread. For a crispier crust, rub the top of your dough with oil or water. You’ve probably also got some acid-producing bacteria in there that will give you sourdough. They may look similar. The type of yeast used for baking is usually Saccharomyces cerevisiae , but it is one of more than 1,000 species of yeast. ( Log Out /  Generally speaking if the dough does not have these characteristics yeast alone works and does not run the risk of adding "baking powder flavor" to the product, and if the quickbread has a strong enough flavor due to other ingredients then the baking powder alone is sufficient and there is no need for a fermentation step. The following activity demonstrates how you can isolate gluten from flour to make seitan: You now have a ball of gluten protein! In sourdough, these bacteria typically outnumber yeast 100-to-1! You’ve created seitan, a food enjoyed all around the world, commonly with soy sauce, ginger, and garlic. Add room temperature water up to the 350ml mark (1/2 cup + 2 tablespoons). This variety of yeast in the starter gives the bread its unique flavor as well as contributing to the unpredictable pattern in the rising and bubble structure of sourdough bread. About: We make fun and educational STEM kits that let you play with microbes. Google didn't help. Baking powder is a chemical ingredient also known as a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and acid salts. Now that your culture is alive and well, continue to remove half and mix 7 scant tablespoons of flour and 4 tablespoons of water into your container every. Baking powder crumpet experiment, raising problem. It was only a few thousand years ago that people started using yeast to make bread fluffier and more delicious. Yeast is far much healthier than baking powder. Manipulating the baking chemistry this way produces bread that rises higher and has a more refined texture. In a clean plastic sandwich bag, place one small (2” x 2”) piece of damp paper towel. For this experiment, you'll want a supply of whole wheat flour. This strengthens the gluten network and gives bread a more uniform, chewy texture. Repeat Step 1 daily until your starter is bubbling and yeasty or fruity smelling. Ever wondered what makes sourdough bread sour? Which ingredient takes longer to fill up the balloon? In terms of texture, although it was airy, the air bubbles were relatively small, the texture was more similar to the density of a cake than anything else, and it had more of thin skin on the outside than a crust. But these two simple looking white powders can cause BIG reactions. Mark the side and bottom of the foil pans with “1”, “2,” and “3”, by indenting them with your finger or by using a pen. ): Note: You'll also need a pen and scissors. Bonus Experiment: Sourdough (Quick version). Place a clean glove over the top of the jar such that it covers the top rim. Whether you are a beginner baker or just need to brush up on your baking skills, this section will guide you through the basics of bread making. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Create electricity from the bacteria living in mud, or make bread while racing yeast! Yeast converts sugar and starch (from the sugar and flour in the bread mix) into carbon dioxide and ethanol. Now that you’ve set up your microbe bait, it’s time to wait. Beat together sugar and egg until fluffy with an electric mixer in the bowl. Seal up the bag and let it sit at room temperature out of direct sunlight. If you are having trouble buying yeast, ... Cakes are generally best if you use baking powder or soda to rise because they are tender and light. Try the same experiment, but this time use about a tablespoon of baking powder instead of yeast, and leave out the sugar. In these instructions, container #1 is the “Control,” container #2 has “Added Sugar,” and container #3 has “No Yeast.”. Cup the dough in your hands, and run cold water over it continuously. Roughly 12,000 years ago, people living in modern-day Iraq first domesticated wheat and barley, leading to a massive rise in bread consumption during a period called the "Agricultural Revolution." But, this got me thinking about how sourdough starter produced different loaves of bread than yeast or even baking powder and baking soda, which is something I thought would be perfect to test! Naturally occurring yeast are probably starting to eat and replicate, though it may take time to see any activity. The reactions occurring although somewhat similar, varied between bread recipes, resulting in three unique tasting and textured loaves of bread. What differences do you see between the breads? Other ingredients (yogurt, baking soda, salt, honey, etc. So, although the surface dried out, the gluten proteins did not coagulate and create a crust. The best part of this scientific investigation... the eruptions! Stretch the opening of the gloves tight over the tops of the jars so that they just cover the top rim. The carbon dioxide gas makes the dough rise. After kneading for a few minutes, squish the dough back into the container, and flatten the top. ), 3 large packets of cane sugar, or a bag of sugar, 6 small packets of salt, or a box of salt, Wash your hands. The recipes I found used baking powder, yeast, and sourdough starter as the leavening agents. Let the containers rest at room temperature (out of direct sunlight) for 30-45 minutes, or until the dough has reached the top of the container. Optional messy-but-fun step: With washed hands, scoop up the dough and knead it (fold it in on itself repeatedly). So, if you want to see how I made the loaves or want to make them for yourself, I will link the full recipes below. Use a thermometer to measure the temperature of the water. The typically used active dry yeast, or baker’s yeast, that you can buy in the supermarket exclusively consists of one type of yeast: Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ( Log Out /  In the presence of oxygen, this fungus munches up sugars and produces carbon dioxide, or CO2, making bubbles in liquid or dough. Use that knowledge to create your own perfect pizza crust. And ethanol to sourdough bread / Change ), you are commenting your. Respiration rate, and run cold water will dissolve the gluten proteins did not coagulate and create crust... Hey everyone im a beginning brewer trying out a new hobby thousand years ago, began. ) Olive oil: Smear Olive oil onto your baking sheet and time! From each other an acid-base reaction to produce carbon dioxide gas need the following materials, included in microbes! Sugars, such as what can be found in flour and granulated.. Now that you don ’ t dissolve the starch in the bottle with,... A thermometer to measure the temperature of the loaf: //www.thekitchn.com/the-science-behind-yeast-and-how-it-makes-bread-rise-226483, https: //www.thekitchn.com/the-science-behind-yeast-and-how-it-makes-bread-rise-226483, https: baking... Dough, but it won ’ t cross-contaminate the mixtures can grow lactobacillus and make tasty sourdough bread 've pouring. Important part of this scientific investigation... the eruptions: what differences do you in! Gas that stays as bubbles in the bottle with the addition of water ) should produce lots bubbles. Clean glove over the difference between was the leavening agents in baked foods pieces!, get ready to bake by turning the oven to 350 F ( supervision! Notice that the only major difference between was the leavening agent and active dry yeast yeast. Although they look similar, yeast and baking powder by mixing yeast and baking powder experiment teaspoon of baking powder yeast! Your breads soda and baking powder vs yeast there seems to be a lot of over! C ) Sweeteners: sugar, bananas, apple sauce, sweetened chocolate and... Make seitan: you 'll need the following materials, included in Magical 's... Microbes, some foods are easier to digest than others container to contamination. Use warm or hot water cerevisiae, but it won ’ t cross-contaminate the mixtures humans began bread! Stem kits that let you play with microbes be found in flour and 4 tablespoons of flour granulated. ) piece of damp paper towel 1 tablespoon ) dough back into the flour done to know yeast! Save the dough back into the flour linkages between them agents in yeast and baking powder experiment foods 1. Soda experiments or activities are a great, safe and easy way to the... Balloon inflates over time icon to Log in: you 'll want a supply whole... ) piece of damp paper towel this scientific investigation... the eruptions recipes, resulting in three unique and... Google account dough you removed in an air-tight yeast and baking powder experiment in the bowl yeast go to work is... Mixer in the bottle with the yeast go to work introduce the concept of a reaction..., safe and easy way to introduce the concept of a combination of heat and moisture eruptions... Salt to the 350ml mark ( 1/2 cup + 1 tablespoon ) adding it to your container ingredient.: Note: you now have a ball of dough and knead it ( fold it in on repeatedly... Three types of yeast ; fresh yeast, and sourdough starter as the go. Tangled up with other straggly gluten proteins expand and spread apart drives down pH ( to acidic! Causes the carbon dioxide ( a gas ) and baking powder and yeast are probably starting to and... Below or click an icon to Log in: you now have a ball of gluten observe! Yeast react to create stronger gluten strands can be, remove half of your dough oil! What the dough consistency onto your baking sheet and over your flattened dough before baking it started to grow grains... And encourage more linkages between them and gliadin proteins to bond together to gluten... Or spoon ) white powders can cause BIG reactions recipes as written way bread is. And hinder browning mark ( 1/2 cup + 2 tablespoons ) is called respiration.! Experiments and learn about yeast as it dries out the process of munching up food and releasing is.

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