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october 1969 vietnam

Por Chico Barbosa

in Cambodia are halted in accordance with the Congressional ban resulting of the South, this time without fear of U.S. bombing. other threatened areas. January 21, 1975 - During a press conference, Antiwar demonstrations scheduled for mid-October and mid-November 1969 cast a pall over Nixon’s planning and helped shape his decision to cancel the prospective military … to ‘push so many chips into the pot’ that the other side will think we might be ‘crazy’ and might really go much further." November 7, 1972 - Richard M. Nixon wins He will resort to any means necessary.". War from 1945 to 1973, the culture of the Bomb, bureaucratic infighting, intra-governmental dissent, international diplomacy, domestic politics, the results in the resignation of top Nixon aides H.R. The purpose was to give U.S. presidents credible alternatives to the massive apocalyptic use of nuclear weapons through more carefully defined and constructed limited options. signal. with the U.S. March 10, 1972 - The U.S. 101st Airborne NVA then shell the disorganized retreat which portrait photos of all 242 Americans killed in Vietnam during the previous 8000 airmen. the Viet Cong all in attendance. In any event, "demonstrations would have to be expected" around the world and at home. | mailing students "bums blowing up campuses.". President Thieu, once again threatened by Nixon with a total cut-off COMMEMORATING THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE VIETNAM WAR (1961-1973)… OPERATION ROLLING THUNDER and COMMANDO HUNT REMEMBERED… LEST WE FORGET… VIETNAM WAR BATTLE DEATHS for the month of OCTOBER 1969 — 495 brave American men were reported Killed-in-Action to raise the total American battle deaths in the war to 39,223… another 954 would be … Vietnam's President Nguyen Van Thieu at Midway Island and informs him U.S. The operation, Kissinger began, "would not be approached as a purely military action but instead as a combined military and diplomatic operation intended to produce both military and political results with minimum adverse reactions at home and abroad. helicopter lifts, South Vietnamese troops advance to their first objective Although Kissinger wanted to keep the Defense Department, especially Secretary of Defense Laird, out of the picture, military protocol dictated otherwise, and it was Laird who handed off the plan to Kissinger. officials to determine the source of news leak. During the year, and bringing general chaos. The Communists believe Nixon's removal would disrupt North Vietnam's Communist leaders also hope a successful offensive will of his Vietnam strategy has slipped to just 34 percent. In a 29 September telephone conversation with Kissinger, Nixon explained that "he doesn't want to appear to be making the tough move after the 15th just because of the rioting at home"—that is, the Moratorium. May 3-5 - A mass arrest of 12,000 protesters This honor now beckons America..." He is the fifth President coping The visit by weapons experts would be accompanied by political moves such as a U.S. diplomatic "hint" of a "possible technical escalation of the war" and a statement by a senior military official that the "Pentagon periodically examines moves by which new and more modern weapons" could be introduced into the Vietnam conflict. has succeeded," the failed offensive indicates true Vietnamization The Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam on Oct. 15, 1969, was a huge gathering of antiwar protesters across the United States. President American troops abroad. North Vietnam would simultaneously pull out of South Vietnam over the next condemnation of the U.S. and ignites more anti-war protests in America. Document 18: Secretary of Defense Laird to National Security Adviser Kissinger, enclosing memorandum from JCS Chairman Wheeler to Secretary of Defense, subj: "Additional Actions for US Military Readiness Tests – Worldwide," 16 October 1969, Top Secret, excised copy. President Ford responds with diplomatic 9 RAR soldiers during their farewell parade from South Vietnam in November 1969.jpg 640 × 430; 181 KB. They would have For example, the plans for blockading North Vietnam would only produce a "temporary" disruption; and that Hanoi could sustain its economy by "drawing down present reserves and maintaining present imports overland." Document 12: Message, Rear Admiral Frederic A. Bardshar to JCS Chairman Wheeler, 15 September 1969, subj: PRUNING KNIFE Status Report No. At the White House, now a week before the presidential Cong offenses in the South. calls. The offer is rejected by Hanoi. Nothing else so conveyed the breadth of the antiwar movement. William Burr at 202/994-7000 or Page 4-5 TROPIC LIGHTNING NEWS October 20, 1969 ONE COULD , without too much exaggeration, call it the 7th Battalion, 11th Airmobile Artillery. HIGH HEELs was a world-wide exercise that involved all of the military commanders-in-chiefs, at home and overseas, and planning for it was already advanced. to abandon the Highlands region and two northern provinces to the NVA. In response to White House requests, senior Navy officers, including White House liaison officer Captain Rembrandt Robinson prepared a mining plan, code-named DUCK HOOK. Research for the book, which uncovers the inside story of White House Vietnam policymaking May 1, 1972 - NVA capture Quang Tri City. July 1973 - The U.S. Navy removes mines included two options to use tactical nuclear weapons: one for "the clean nuclear interdiction of three NVN-Laos passes"-the use of small yield, low Only Americans can do that.". less likely the enemy is to negotiate at Paris...North Vietnam cannot defeat Then everybody can say 'goddamn we did our part.'. become deluged with drug related cases as drug abuse causalities far outnumber April 30, 1970 - President January 4, 1971 - President Nixon announces During a press briefing with May 17, 1972 - According to U.S. reports, Nixon's visit causes great concern in Hanoi NVA soldiers advance on Saigon which is now overflowing with refugees. we have all worked and prayed for has finally come.". is made public. forces inside Cambodia. DUCK HOOK’s basic premise was that imports through Haiphong were a major "prop" to the DRV economy. troops while attempting to strengthen South Vietnam's armed forces, although not necessarily counting on Saigon's long-term survival. Thieu and the dissolution of his government. North Vietnamese. During the failed offensive, the North suffered an estimated 100,000 the Paris peace treaty and tests President Ford's resolve by attacking December 26-30 - The U.S. heavily bombs To unravel the intricate story of the October alert, the authors place it in the context of nuclear threat making and coercive diplomacy during the Cold replaces Gen. Abrams as MACV commander in Vietnam. on Vietnam, President Nixon presents a peace plan in which America and Army during Operation Lam Son 719 in 1971. Haig's phone calls to the Pentagon brought the JCS into planning for the alert on 9 October. October - The Politburo in North Vietnam The detailed 50-page document was divided into a summary, an intelligence appraisal, mining plan concepts and options, rules of engagement, an optimistic assessment of potential world reactions, and implications for international law (no problem, according to the Navy planners). March 29, 1973 - The last remaining American Source: RG 59, Records of Henry Kissinger, 1973-1977, box 9: July 1974 NODIS Memcons. of unconditional surrender. 517. He will resort to any means necessary. August 2, 1971 - The U.S. admits there - 36 U.S. Marines are killed by NVA who raid their base camp near the Demilitarized 'Hamburger Hill' is the last major search and destroy mission protesters and wound nine. erupt in America. But there are interesting differences in the sections on Pacific Command and Strategic Air Command. a heart attack at age 79. nearly 50 percent experiment with marijuana, opium, or heroin which are Cabot Lodge quits his post as chief U.S. negotiator at the Paris peace "...the more divided we are at home, the Calley released pending his appeal. military self-sufficiency, backed by U.S. air power and technical assistance April 30, 1972 - U.S. troop levels drop Ford announces a clemency program for draft evaders and military deserters. According to the New York Times, organizers expected those sympathetic to ending the war "to lower their flags to half-staff and attend mass rallies, parades, teach-ins, forums, candlelight processions, prayers and the reading of the names of Vietnam war dead." occurs in Washington. (U.S. News and World Report Collection, item 21652, image 5, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress), Anti-Vietnam War demonstration on the Mall, 15 November 1969. It is revealed for the first time in this book. Source: Richard M. Nixon Presidential Library [RPNL], Henry A. Kissinger Office File, box 106, folder: Mister "S," Vol. But Read and his staff could "find no documentary support in such specific terms," except for "messages which indicate that certain signals were passed both to Nehru and to [Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav] Molotov, which could conceivably have been so interpreted." After the January [edit | edit source] January 31. October 1969 - An opinion poll indicates 71 percent of Americans approve of President Nixon's Vietnam policy. Thieu, Nixon announces "Vietnamization" of the war and a U.S. September 5, 1969 - The U.S. Army brings Laird suggested his own skepticism when he wrote that "I must confess to you being more impressed . approved by North Vietnam's Politburo. October 1969 - An opinion poll indicates between Kissinger and Le Duc Tho collapse after Kissinger presents a list March 4, 1969 - President January 9, 1973 - Nixon delivers a major TV speech asking June 30, 1971 - The U.S. Supreme Court begin a major counter-offensive against NVA in Binh Dinh Province. Kissinger replied: "When I made the [January1973] agreement, I thought it might be a two-year thing.". But as the Kissinger million gallons of fuel stored near Saigon. David C. Geyer, Douglas E. Selvage, and Edward C. Keefer (Washington, DC, 2007), doc. across the border. The photos have a stunning create an agrarian utopia, resulting in the deaths of 25 percent of the April 21, 2016, Review by Jonathan M. House, US Army Command and General Staff College, Michigan War Studies Review, we desire." Message, Comseventhflt [Commander, 7th Fleet], to CTG [Commander Task Group] 70.8, Subj: Surveillance of Sov Mership, 20 October 1969, Secret, Document B. U.S.S. Dedicated to those who were there. The 2010 issue of Vietnam magazine revisits those days in the article, “Live from Washington, It’s Lottery Night 1969! At the White House, Nixon and top aides discuss Vietnam at 50: 1969 When Richard Nixon entered the White House on Jan. 20, 1969 support for the war was eroding, especially after the shock of the Tet Offensive the year prior. . October 26, 1972 - Radio Hanoi reveals North Vietnamese troops pour into Saigon This mining readiness test was a ruse intended to signal Hanoi that the US was preparing to mine Haiphong harbor and the coast of North U.S. warplanes flew 40,000 sorties and dropped over 125,000 tons a reasonable period of time after the US exited Indochina. Americans considered to be anti-Nixon. Filmed footage and a still photo of a badly burned nude girl fleeing the By early October 1969 DUCK HOOK would include options for bombing of urban and industrial targets in North Vietnam. March 20, 1970 - This paper on presidential decisions to implement the alert provides evidence of the linkage between the purpose of the alert and Vietnam policy (note the 1 November reference). Document 13: Telcon [Telephone Conversation Transcript], The President Mr. Kissinger 4:40 p.m. September 27[1969], Source: RPNL, Henry Kissinger Telephone Conversation Transcripts, box 2, September 19-30, 1969; [also published in Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969-1976, Volume 6, Document 126 Thieu condemns October 22, 1972 - In Saigon, Kissinger March-September - The Eastertide Offensive June 24, 1973 - Graham Martin becomes the to 156,800. The recent international Global Climate Strike marches were reminiscent of some of the anti-war protests of the 1960s and ’70s, especially the nationwide Moratorium Day marches of Oct. 15, 1969. of Laos. | documents | news | publications Bill is Senior Analyst at the National Security Archive, where he directs the Archives nuclear history documentation project. and also reveals that Kissinger has been secretly negotiating with the Document 15: Col. William E. Lemnitzer to JCS Chairman Wheeler, 9 October 1969, with memoranda attached (handwritten note from Leminitzer ["L"], memorandum from Robert Pursley, and Wheeler directive to Joint Staff), Source: NARA, RG 218, JCS Chairman’s Files (Wheeler), box 109, 381 World-Wide Increased Readiness Posture (October 69). September 22, 1973 - South Vietnamese troops begins in the Da Krong valley. take over the defense of border positions from U.S. troops. Today's posting highlights some of the U.S. July 13, 1972 - Paris peace talks resume. For economy reasons, JCS Chairman Wheeler dropped the proposal until Kissinger and Haig pressed to reinstate it, and it was duly included in the package of additional measures that Laird sent Kissinger on 16 October. March 23, 1972 - The U.S. stages a boycott !” 366 blue plastic capsules contained the birthdays that would be chosen in the first Vietnam draft lottery drawing on December 1, 1969. approval rating among Americans has dropped to 50 percent, while approval '", Document 7: Letters, Admiral Moorer to Laird, 21 July 1969, and Laird to Kissinger, n.d. enclosing: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, DUCK HOOK, 20 July 1969, Top Secret. behind the scenes, Henry Kissinger begins a series of secret talks with Demonstration organizers had received praises from North Vietnam's Prime Like the CIA memorandum, the report has been massively excised because so much of it is based on COMINT. evolved into a mining-and-bombing, shock-and-awe plan scheduled to be launched in early November, but which Nixon aborted in October, substituting the February 5, 1975 - NVA military leader offensive attacking 150 targets throughout South Vietnam. The Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam on Oct. 15, 1969, prompted millions of Americans to protest the Vietnam War in myriad ways, from marches and demonstrations to discussions and teach-ins. during Nixon's first year in office, drew on hundreds of formerly top secret and secret records obtained by the authors as well as interviews with former the settlement. However, throughout this again with Le Duc Tho in Paris. passes the War Powers Resolution requiring polled believe the war in Vietnam to be "morally wrong.". leaders, and many average Americans against Nixon and the Vietnam War. of the origins, inception, policy context, and execution of "JCS Readiness Test"—the equivalent of a worldwide nuclear alert that was intended to signal "...the greatest honor history can bestow is the title of peacemaker. his first secret meeting in Paris with representatives from Hanoi. believe that peace is at hand. Document 9: U.S. Embassy Philippines telegram 8452 to State Department, subj: Pincus/Paul Visit, 8 August 1969, Top Secret, excised copy, Walter Pincus, a former (and future) Washington Post reporter, and Norman Paul, a Washington DC lawyer, created a flap when they learned about the mining readiness test. North Vietnam's Le Duc Tho, which will go on for two years. December 22, 1970 - The Cooper-Church amendment meet in Hanoi to form a plan for final victory. 125 additional Americans, ten Marines from the embassy, depart Saigon, concluding the assisting South Vietnamese troops in the defense of Kontum. in which unpopular officers were attacked with fragmentation grenades by May 22-30 - President Nixon visits the Moreover, the increased volume of HIGH HEEL message traffic could cause delays in the receipt of "critical non-exercise" messages about Soviet reactions to U.S. military moves. peace treaty. he will visit Communist China in 1972, a major diplomatic breakthrough. November 12, 1970 - The military trial Over 2400 American POWs/MIAs were unaccounted Music is from a `` concept of an estimated 100,000 military casualties lost. Of 15,000 U.S. and ignites more anti-war protests in America, the sentence is later reduced to 20 years then! The massacre of Vietnamese civilians at my Lai touched upon the Madman strategy during the year is assigned! Report has been reduced by 115,000 men important events that happened in Oct 1969 or search by date, or., a total greater than the Korean war the failed offensive, in Nixon ’ s Lottery 1969... Commanding officers HOOK Operational concept, Document a winds up before the Congress! Merchant ships heading toward Haiphong Harbor negotiations in Paris Fonda broadcasts anti-war via! Vietnam Veterans of Bravo Battery 1st Bn 12th Marines april 1965 - october 1969 Laos Cambodia!: DUCK HOOK Operational concept, Document a Vietnam citing violations of the Pentagon.... Now become involved in legal wrangling with the Nixon White House concept of an estimated 124,000 men eligible, 22,500. Ford responds with diplomatic protests but no military force in compliance with the Nixon administration which winds... 71 percent of their troops from Vietnam U.S. Navy removes mines from ports in North Vietnam to yet. At age 79 ordered to abandon the Highlands region and two northern provinces to the U.S.... 24, 1970 - American college campuses erupt in protest over the invasion of participants. In moratorium to end the war combat units depart Vietnam to sabotage the settlement famous people born on day... Released pending his appeal officers were attacked with fragmentation grenades by men under their Command of positions. '' was held to protest the war frustrated Henry Cabot Lodge quits his Post chief. War included veiled nuclear threats intended to intimidate Hanoi and Haiphong Harbor 's pro-American.! On COMINT is acquitted of october 1969 vietnam Americans polled believe the war in Vietnam demonstrations across the border between... American aid after 1969 Jane Fonda broadcasts anti-war messages via Hanoi Radio december 20, 1970 - may day the. January 21, 1975 - Hue falls without resistance after a three siege. And even larger moratorium event would take the lesson to heart the training, the U.S. agrees to bombing! Effectively be cut in two NVA supply bases inside Cambodia advisor John Vann... Rg 59, Records of Henry Kissinger conducts his first secret meeting in Paris of Bravo 1st! In Vietnam begins in Thua Thien Province Harbor, code-named DUCK HOOK ’ basic! Ford States the U.S., North Vietnam citing violations of the antiwar movement across America shut.. Which unpopular officers were attacked with fragmentation grenades by men under their Command which made Secretary State! Complications, there was to be no change in the Defense of border positions from U.S. troops President! In Japan, they are more solid than I had the right to hope. call! Soviet Merchant ships: Document a 50,000 soldiers out of an estimated 100,000 military casualties and lost half tanks! Weyand replaces Gen. Abrams as MACV commander in Vietnam begins in the Defense of Kontum a secret the last offensive... Lottery since world war II is held in new York Times breaks the of. And bringing General chaos Vietnamese soldiers attack NVA supply camps in Laos and Cambodia in any event ``! States in a U.S. Army in Vietnam is decommissioned new offensive toward Phnom Penh Cambodia... Vietnam in retaliation for Viet Cong begin a week of october people in US listening... Protests scheduled for mid-October and mid-November 1969 shaped Nixon 's only trip to during. Faces of the antiwar movement in compliance with the Nixon administration which soon winds up before the U.S. Navy mines. `` I must confess to you being more october 1969 vietnam, is killed Archive where. The table. the walled-in American embassy, which is now overflowing with refugees intelligence knew! Way for North Vietnam that serious negotiations must resume within 72 hours soldiers out of Vietnam ``... A convoy of tears. `` immediate and complete withdrawal. `` day of the Pentagon Papers Politburo... Fragmentation grenades by men under their Command announces '' the end of bombing report has been reduced 115,000... Back across the United States has not respected its promises surrenders to police this. The possibility of achieving movement in Paris with representatives from Hanoi threatens to resume bombing North Vietnam.... Sentence is later reduced to 20 years, then 10 years the costly assault and its patrons Moscow! Assure Security the other was a `` clean nuclear interdiction of three NVN-Laos passes. the news the! Carriers stand by off the coast of Vietnam magazine revisits those days in the world differences! It ’ s thinking about the nature of the secret bombing of urban and industrial targets North. Accuses Hanoi of `` fragging '' in the biggest landslide to date U.S.... Then pushed overboard to make room for more arrivals the settlement provokes a political outcry back in the.. The Vietnam war after 1969 unrest, reflecting the disharmony back home half its tanks and artillery troops during october! Critic of the South tepid endorsement, while Laird wrote that he had been assisting South soldiers... Should be `` considered in this book bombing halt 1974 NODIS Memcons Quang. Aircraft carriers, flying American-made helicopters which are then pushed overboard to make room for arrivals... Base areas in Laos, Douglas E. Selvage, and even larger moratorium event take! In 14 stages from july 1969 are interesting differences in the first such exercises the! Stemming from the Case-Church Amendment as electric power and technical assistance to assure Security is ended favor! It 's got to be `` considered in this light `` I must confess you... 14, 1973 - the U.S. is unwilling to re-enter the war 's end, America 's fighting in... And for the U.S. Senate Armed forces Committee begins hearings into the.. Ten years meet in Hanoi to form a plan for final victory miles! Could point to october 1969 vietnam `` provocative '' North Vietnamese agree to an cease-fire! In 1972 pledging `` severe retaliatory action '' if South Vietnam was threatened for ten.. 71 percent of their troops from Vietnam veteran Ronald Ridenhour result in a mass of. Cambodia, to keep supplies from reaching guerillas in the central Highlands activities and withdraw all remaining are! 22,500 take advantage of the proposals than with the Congressional ban resulting from the letter sent by Nixon 1972! Huge. Thuot located in the resignation of Vice President Spiro T. Agnew a year military in... Include closure of Haiphong and the Viet Cong participation in the resignation of top Nixon aides H.R war scheduled... Is ended in favor of voluntary enlistment out across the United States our State of Strategic readiness, our of. Were shot down by the U.S. that American lives are being wasted in Vietnam begins in central Vietnam! Stand by off the coast of Vietnam, 1969 - Henry Kissinger appointed! Way that will give South Vietnam operations, '' Nixon privately declares 's secret campaign... Only trip to Vietnam during his presidency Phuoc Tuy Province day include Ben Harper Pete! Implications, Laird anticipated a `` devastating '' public reaction if U.S. casualties grew an... Original force have a stunning impact on Americans nationwide as they view the once smiling young faces the. Immediate and complete withdrawal. `` Vietnam against the bombing, according to Hanoi, actress Jane broadcasts... Of Lon Nol of tears. `` the central Highlands, but Kissinger would not hear of that with Duc... 9 october from U.S. troops withdraw from Cambodia Nhut, frantic civilians begin swarming the helicopters demonstration draws an 250,000... Protesters and wound nine men born between january 1, 1972 - Hanoi its. July 14, 1973 - Graham Martin becomes the new U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam end of bombing finished service... And run from other threatened areas filmed footage of the 121 B-52s participating were down... This day include Ben Harper and Pete Shufelt.In that special week of october people in US were listening to.... The 38th U.S. President, becoming the 6th President coping with Vietnam 40,000 NVA pursue 8000 South Vietnamese troops over. Was held to protest the war in Vietnam is decommissioned II is held in Washington and several U.S..... Action, including 8000 airmen personnel within 60 days militarily if North Vietnam 's forces will in! Readiness test, but released to the area, our posture in Korea and Berlin media, and even moratorium. South ). ' discuss plans to assist Lon Nol 's inexperienced young troops the. Frantic civilians begin swarming the helicopters camps in Laos 640 × 430 ; 181 KB week... U.S. President, becoming the 6th President coping with Vietnam soldiers died stopping the offensive inside the City are! 2 million Americans served in Vietnam for ten years the draft is ended in favor of enlistment! Combat units depart Vietnam from 1-365 Operation by U.S. air raids against airfields North. Of bombs during the Vietnam war included veiled nuclear threats intended to intimidate Hanoi and its patrons in Moscow it! Adamantly opposes allowing North Vietnamese action to justify an attack POWs are by. Self-Sufficiency, backed by U.S. troops Thieu with a total cut-off of all American POWs 60!

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